Bone tissue engineering
This patient has a non-healing fracture that could be repaired by cell therapy. First, a small amount of bone marrow is aspirated from the hip under local anesthesia. Bone marrow contains a low proportion of mesenchymal stem cells that could heal bone tissue. Mesenchymal stem cells are isolated from bone marrow by their adherence to plastic dish and amplified in culture to several hundred million in 3 weeks. These cells are then mixed with synthetic material, biphasic calcium phosphate granules that mimic the mineral component of bones. Mesenchymal stem cells attach on granules, multiply in culture, produce an abundant extracellular matrix made of collagen fibers and progressively differentiate into bone forming cells, osteoblasts. From patient’ s blood, monocytes are sorted by magnetic labeling and are differentiated into bone resorbing cells, multinucleated osteoclasts. The mix of cells and biomaterial is implanted at the site of fracture where they would heal bone.